D. J. Scott D. J. Scott
SciencePhysicsChemistry ► Organic Chemistry ► BiologyExtremophiles

Acid X-Philes

Acidophiles & Hyperacidotolerant, Near-Acidophilic Neutriphiles

Introduction

This group includes organisms capable of thriving in hyperacidic conditions, most of which have an optimal growth pH of 5 or lower (OGpH<5), although a few have an OGpH slightly above this (e.g., Nanoarchaeum equitans, OGpH=6) but can nonetheless be found flourishing in hyperacidic environments (pH=0.5-1.5).

Part I

Archaea

Described Species
Genus & Species OGpH pH range Source
Acidianus ambivalens 2.5 1-3.5 Johnson, 1998; Zhang et al., 2015
Acidianus brierleyi 1.5-2 1-6 Johnson, 1998; Edwards et al., 2000; Fashola et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2015
Acidianus convivator <4 ? ()
Acidianus copahuensis 2.5-3 1-5 Zhang et al., 2015
Acidianus infernus 2 1-5.5 Johnson, 1998; Zhang et al., 2015
Acidianus manzaensis 1.2-2.5 1-5 Ding et al. 2011; Zhang et al., 2015
Acidianus pozzuoliensis ?
Acidianus sulfidivorans 0.8-1.4 0.35-3 Plumb et al. 2007; Zhang et al., 2015
Acidianus tengchongensis 1.5-2.5 1-5.5 He et al. 2004; Zhang et al., 2015
Acidianus sp. DSM 29099 ? ? Zhang et al., 2015
Acidianus sp. RZ1 ? ? Zhang et al., 2015
Acidiplasma aeolicum 1.4-1.6 0-4 Zhang et al., 2015
Acidiplasma cupricumulans 1-1.2 0.4-1.8 Zhang et al., 2015
Candidatus Aenigmarchaeum subterraneum 0.5-1.5 ? Baker et al., 2006; Golyshina et al., 2017
Candidatus Cenarchaeum symbiosum A <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Cuniculiplasma divulgatum 1-1.2 ? Golyshina et al. 2016
Ferroplasma acidarmanus 1.2 0-2.5 Edwards et al., 2000, Dopson et al.2003; Zhang et al., 2015
Ferroplasma acidiphilum 1.7 1.3-2.2 Fashola et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2015
Ferroplasma acidiphilum BRGM4 ? ? Zhang et al., 2015
Ferroplasma cyprexacervatum <4 ? ()
Ferroplasma thermophilum 1 0.2-2.5 Zhang et al., 2015
Halarchaeum acidiphilum <4 ? ()
Candidatus Haloredivivus sp. 0.5-1.5 ? Baker et al., 2006; Golyshina et al., 2017
Candidatus Lainarchaeum andersonii 0.5-1.5 ? Baker et al., 2006; Golyshina et al., 2017
Candidatus Mancarchaeum acidiphilum 0.5-1.5 ? Baker et al., 2006; Golyshina et al., 2017
Metallosphaera cuprina 3.5 2.5-5.5 Zhang et al., 2015
Metallosphaera hakonensis 3 1-4 Zhang et al., 2015
Metallosphaera prunae 2 1-4.5 Johnson, 1998; Zhang et al., 2015
Metallosphaera sedula 2 1-4.5 Johnson, 1998; Fashola et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2015
Metallosphaera yellowstonensis 2-3 1-4.5 Zhang et al., 2015
Candidatus Micrarchaeum acidiphilum 0.5-1.5 ? Baker et al., 2006; Baker et al., 2010; Golyshina et al., 2017
Candidatus Nanoarchaeum equitans 6*; 0.5-1.5 ? Baker et al., 2006; Baker et al., 2010; Golyshina et al., 2017
Nanobsidianus stetteri ?
Nanopusillus acidilobi sp. ?
Candidatus Nanosalina sp. 0.5-1.5 ? Baker et al., 2006; Baker et al., 2010; Golyshina et al., 2017
Candidatus Nanosalinarum sp. 0.5-1.5 ? Baker et al., 2006; Baker et al., 2010; Golyshina et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum limnia <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum limnia <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosocosmicus oleophilus <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosopelagicus brevis <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus <4 ? Lehtovirta-Morley et al., 2014; Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosopumilus viennensis <4 ? Lehtovirta-Morley et al., 2014
Candidatus Nitrosopumilus sp. SJ <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosopumilus sp. NF5 <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosopumilus sp. AR1 <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosopumilus sp. AR2 <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosopumilus salaria <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosopumilus sp. D3C <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrososphaera viennensis <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosotalea okcheonensis <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosotalea sinensis <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosotalea devanaterra 4-5 ? Lehtovirta-Morley et al., 2011 & 2014; Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosotalea bavarica <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosotenuis uzonensis <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Nitrosotenuis cloacae <4 ? Herbold et al., 2017
Candidatus Parvarchaeum acidiphilum 0.5-1.5 ? Baker et al., 2006; Baker et al., 2010; Golyshina et al., 2017
Candidatus Parvarchaeum acidophilus 0.5-1.5 ? Baker et al., 2006; Baker et al., 2010; Golyshina et al., 2017
Picrophilus sp. 1 ? (Baker-Austin & Dopson, 2007)
Picrophilus oshimae 0.7-2.2 ≥0-3.5 Rampelotto, 2013, Johnson, 1998
Picrophilus torridus 0.06-0.07 ≥0-3.5 Rampelotto, 2013, Johnson, 1998; Zhang et al., 2015
Stygiolobus azoricus 2.5-3 1-5.5 Johnson, 1998; Zhang et al., 2015
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius 2-3 1-5.9 Johnson, 1998; Edwards et al., 2000; Zhang et al., 2015
Sulfolobus hakonensis <3 ? Johnson, 1998
Sulfolobus islandicus <4 ? ()
Sulfolobus metallicus ? 1-4.5 Johnson, 1998; Fashola et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2015
Sulfolobus mirabilis <3 ? Johnson, 1998
Sulfolobus neozealandicus ? ? ()
Sulfolobus rivotinct ? ? Zhang et al., 2015
Sulfolobus shibatae 3 ? Johnson, 1998; Zhang et al., 2015
Sulfolobus solfataricus 3 2-4 Johnson, 1998, Dopson (2003); Zhang et al., 2015
Sulfolobus tengchongensis 3.5 1.7-6.5 Zhang et al., 2015
Sulfolobus thuringiensis ? ? ()
Sulfolobus tokodaii 2.5-3 2-5 Dopson 2003; Zhang et al., 2015
Sulfolobus yangmingensis 4 2-6 Zhang et al., 2015
Sulfurisphaera ohwakuensis 2 1-5 Zhang et al., 2015
Sulfurococcus mirabilis 2-2.6 1-5.8 Zhang et al., 2015
Sulfurococcus yellowstonensis 2-2.6 1-5.5 Zhang et al., 2015
Sulfurococcus yellowstonii ? ? Johnson, 1998
Thermococcus celer 5.8 ? Zhang et al., 2015
Thermogymnomonas acidocola 3 1.8-4 Zhang et al., 2015
Thermoplasma acidophilum 1.8 0.5-4 Johnson, 1998; Zhang et al., 2015
Thermoplasma volcanium 2 1-4 Johnson, 1998; Zhang et al., 2015

Part I

Bacteria

Described Species
Genus & Species OGpH pH range Source
Acetobacter aceti ? Johnson, 1998
Acidiphilium acidophilum
(Thiobacillus acidophilus)
<3 ? Johnson, 1998
Acidiphilium multivorum <3 ? (Dopson 2003)
Acidithiobacillus albertensis
(Thiobacillus albertis)
<3 ? Johnson, 1998; Fashola et al., 2015
Acidithiobacillus caldus
(Thiobacillus caldus)
<3 ? Johnson, 1998;
Fashola et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2015
Acidithiobacillus ferridurans <4 ? ()
Acidithiobacillus ferriphilus <4 ? ()
Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans <4 ? (Fashola et al., 2015)
Acidithiobacillus ferro(o)xidans
(Thiobacillus ferrooxidans)
<3 ? Johnson, 1998; Fashola et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2015
Acidithiobacillus thioxidans
(Thiobacillus thioxidans)
<3 ? Johnson, 1998; Fashola et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2015
Acidobacterium capsulatum <3 ? Johnson, 1998; Fashola et al., 2015
Acidimicrobium ferroxidans <3 ? Johnson, 1998; Fashola et al., 2015
Acidocella spp. <3 ? Johnson, 1998
Acidomonas methanolica <3 ? Johnson, 1998
Alicyclobacillus thermosulfidooxidans <3 ? Johnson, 1998
Alicyclobacillus thermosulfidooxidans
(Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans)
<3 ? Johnson, 1998; Fashola et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2015
Bryocella elongata <4 ? ()
Ferrimicrobium acidiphilum <3 ? Johnson, 1998
Ferrimicrobium acidiphilus <3 ? Fashola et al., 2015
Gallionella ferruginea ? (Fashola et al., 2015)
Helicobacter pylori ?
Hydrogenobacter acidophilus ? (Fashola et al., 2015)
Leptospirillum ferriphilum <3 ? Lehtovirta-Morley et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015
Leptospirillum ferro(o)xidans <3 ? Johnson, 1998; Fashola et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2015
Leptospirillum thermoferrooxidans <3 ? Johnson, 1998
Sulfobacillus acidophilus <3 ? Johnson, 1998; Fashola et al., 2015
Telmatobacter bradus <4 ? ()
Thiobacillus acidophilus <4 ? ()
Thiobacillus dentrificans ? (Fashola et al., 2015)
Thiobacillus organovorus <4 ? ()
Thiobacillus prosperus <3 ? Johnson, 1998
Thiomonas cuprina
(Thiobacillus cuprinus)
<3 ? Johnson, 1998
Desulfovibrio sp. ? ? Fashola et al., 2015
Desulfomicrobium sp. ? ? Fashola et al., 2015
Desulfobulbus sp. ? ? Fashola et al., 2015
Desulfosarcina sp. ? ? Fashola et al., 2015
Desulfobacter sp. ? ? Fashola et al., 2015
Desulfotomaculum sp. ? ? Fashola et al., 2015


Ding et al., 2011
Dopson et al., 2003
Baker et al., 2010
Plumb et al., 2007
Whitman et al., 1999
"Nitrosotalea is an abundant, globally distributed genus of AOA found in acidic soils (Gubry-Rangin et al., 2011). Thirty per cent of the world's soils are considered acidic (pH < 5.5; von Uexküll & Mutert, 1995), and ammonia oxidation in low pH soils is dominated by AOA, rather than AOB (Gubry-Rangin et al., 2010; Lehtovirta-Morley et al., 2011)."

Craig W. Herbold, Laura E. Lehtovirta-Morley, Man-Young Jung, Nico Jehmlich, Bela Hausmann, Ping Han, Alexander Loy, Michael Pester, Luis A. Sayavedra-Soto, Sung-Keun Rhee, James I. Prosser, Graeme W. Nicol, Michael Wagner and Cecile Gubry-Rangin. Ammonia-oxidising archaea living at low pH: Insights from comparative genomics. Environmental Microbiology (2017) 19(12), 4939–4952

References


X-Philes
Acidophiles
Alkaliphiles
Barophiles
Halophiles
Haloalkaliphiles
Hyperthermophiles
Thermoacidophiles
Thermobarophiles
Radioresistant Organisms
Xerophiles
Cryophiles
⚑ = You Are Here.

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